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Trail choices[ edit ] Pioneers across what became the Western United States in the 19th century had the choice of several routes.
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Some of the earliest were those of the Mexicans in the southwest. American trade with Santa Fe following an 18th-century route pioneered by the Spanish Empire. During the twenty-five years —,topeople "pulled up stakes," and headed west along these trails.
About one-third immigrated to Oregon, one-third to California and one-third to Utah, Colorado, and Montana. Although it is often stated that the Northern trails began in certain cities on the Missouri Riverpioneers following any of the three trails typically left from one of three "jumping off" points on the Missouri's steamboat serviced river ports : Independence, Missouri or Saint Joseph, Missourior Council BluffsIowa.
Once known as Kanesville, Iowa until ; after river dredging in the early s, the latter town at the Missouri-Platte confluence became the most common departure point since it was close in proximity to the River Platte—along which the eastern trails ascend to South Pass above Fort Laramie. The trails from these cities and several others converged in the mostly empty flatlands of central Nebraska near present-day Kearneyin the vicinity of Fort Kearney. From their confluence there the combined trails followed in succession the PlatteNorth Platteand Sweetwater rivers westward across the full widths of Nebraska and Wyomingand crossed the continental divide south of the Wind River Range through South Pass in southwestern Wyoming.
The most common vehicle for Oregon and California-bound pioneers was a covered wagon pulled by a team of oxen or mules which were greatly preferred for their endurance and strength over horses in the dry semi-arid terrain common to the high plains in the heat of summer.
In later years, following the advice of Brigham Young, many Mormon emigrants made the crossing to Utah with handcarts. For all pioneers, the scarcity of potable water and fuel for fires was a common brutal challenge on the trip, which was exacerbated by the wide ranging temperature changes common to the mountain highlands and high plains where a daylight reading in the eighties or nineties can drop precipitously to a frigid seeming nighttime temperature in the low 40s.
In many treeless areas, buffalo chips were the most common source of fuel. It crossed what was then the northernmost part of Mexico. In the south the forty-niners used the Cooke Wagon Road, until some found a short cut, the Tucson Cutoff. Inas part of an improvement of the route as a military road, a cutoff was built to Cooke's Spring from Mesillapart of Mexico until This route became the Southern Emigrant Trail. During the Gold Rush era it was these routes by which many recenzii etherium de tranzacționare pe forturi de unde să înceapă of sheep and cattle were driven to California and the goldfields.
With the passes of the Sierras and the Rocky Mountains blocked opțiuni de tranzacționare pe forturi de unde să înceapă winter, another winter route, the Mormon Road between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles was developed by a Mormon expedition from their new settlements at and around Salt Lake City, and by some Mormon Battalion soldiers returning to Utah in — The first significant use of the route was by parties of Forty-Niners late inand by some Mormon trains, to avoid crossing the snow bound Sierra Nevada Mountains by linking up with the Old Spanish Trail in southern Utah and closely following it, with alterations to the route of the mule trails only to allow wagons to traverse it for the first time.
Soon afterward it was the route Mormon colonists followed to settle southwestern Utah, a mission in Las Vegas and a colony in San Bernardino, California. This wagon route, also called by some of its early travelers the Southern Route, of the California Trail, remained a minor migration route and in the early s a mail route. After some alterations of the route between Cajon Pass and the border of California and in southern Utah, init became a significant seasonal trade route between California and Utah, untilwhen the transcontinental railroad ended Utah's winter isolation.
Up to toate metodele de câștiguri rapide, people, or one-tenth of the emigrants who attempted the crossing continent, opțiuni de tranzacționare pe opțiuni de tranzacționare pe forturi de unde să înceapă de unde să înceapă during the trip, most from infectious disease such as choleraspread by poor sanitation: with thousands traveling along or near the same watercourses each summer, downstream travelers were susceptible to ingesting upstream wastewater including bodily waste.
Hostile confrontations with Native Americansalthough often feared by the colonists, were comparatively rare, prior to the American Civil War. Most colonists traveled in large parties or "trains" of up to several hundred wagons led by a wagon master.
In the government published a guidebook written by Captain Randolph B. Marcycalled The Prairie Traveler, in order to help emigrants prepare for the journey. Pioneered in by William Becknell, it served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in The route skirted the northern edge and crossed the north-western corner of Comancheria, the territory of the Comanches, who demanded compensation for granting passage to the trail, and represented another market for American traders.
Comanche raiding farther south in Mexico isolated New Mexico, making it more dependent on the American trade, and provided the Comanches with a steady supply of horses for sale. By the s trail traffic along the Arkansas Valley was so heavy that bison herds could not reach important seasonal grazing land, contributing to their collapse which in turn hastened the decline of Comanche power in the region. The Trail was used as the U. After the U. A highway route that roughly follows the trail's path through the entire length of Kansas, the southeast corner of Colorado and northern New Mexico has been designated as the Santa Fe Trail National Scenic Byw.
The Trail left Santa Fe and split into two routes. From central Utah the trail trended southwest to an area now shared by Utah, Nevada and Arizona.
Main article: Oregon Trail The Oregon Trail, the longest of the overland routes used in the westward expansion of the United States, was first traced by colonizers and fur traders for traveling to the Oregon Country. The main route of the Oregon Trail stopped at the Hudson's Bay Company Fort Halla major resupply route along the trail near present-day Pocatello and where the California Trail split off to the south. It was the only practical way for colonizers in wagons without tools, livestock, or supplies to cross the mountains and usually thought critical to the colonization of the American West.
Desigur, în unele moduri, acestea au cu adevărat drept - atunci când tranzacționează pe Forex, noii veniți nu ar trebui să-și pulverizeze imediat atenția asupra tuturor instrumentelor valutare existente pe piață, ci pentru a cunoaște caracteristicile lor nu este doar necesar, ci și important.
Some of the first to travel the Oregon Trail were Christian missionaries, members of the Methodist Episcopal Church who established the ] in Even though they didn't make many converts, de unde vin bitcoinii were impressed by the short amount of time needed to reach the Pacific Coast. Rumors about how the sun always shone there and wheat grew as tall as a man attracted American colonizers.
The journey to the west was pleasant, but there were dangers and challenges along the route. There were diseases: cholera, measles, smallpox, and dysentery.
Children were crushed under the covered wagon wheels, people drowned in rivers, were lost, starved, killed by Native Americans very few colonizersfroze to death, trampled by buffalo, or shot by accident. With these accidents, many colonizers died.
About 20, to 30, died on the Oregon Trail along the way in 40 years. American colonizers began following the trail inwith the first recorded colonist wagon traingroup being the "Great Migration" of about colonists, led in part by Marcus Whitman.
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The Territory of Oregon was established shortly afterward, inand over 12, American colonists made the journey there during the decade. Families usually began their journey at Independence, Missouri, near the Missouri River with the best time to travel is from April to September.
The journey to cross the entire Oregon Trail in a covered wagon took from four to six months, following a winding trail 2, miles 3, km through prairies, deserts, and across mountains to the Pacific Northwest. The journey was a severe test of strength and endurance so travelers often joined wagon trains traveling about 12—15 miles 19—24 km per day.
Colonists often had to cross flooded rivers. Indians attacked the wagon trains; however, of the 10, deaths that occurred from toonly 4 percent resulted from Indian attacks. Cholera, smallpox, and firearms accidents were the chief causes of death on the trail. Food, water, and wood were always scarce, and the colonizers often encountered contaminated water holes.
During summer, the trail was crowded with wagon trains, army units, missionaries, hunting parties, traders, and even sightseeing tours.
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Some colonists complained that they sometimes had to start early in the day in order to find a good campsite ahead of the crowd. Others spoke of the need to wear masks for protection against the dust kicked Strategii de 60 de secunde pentru opțiuni binare by the heavy traffic.
The California Trail came into heavy use after the California Gold Rush enticed overgold-seekers and farmers to travel overland the gold fields and rich farmlands of California during the 's and "s. Today, over 1, miles of trail ruts and traces can still be seen in the vast undeveloped lands between Capers Wyoming and the West Boast. The Mormon Trail followed part of the Oregon Trail and then branched off at the fur trading post called Fort Bridgerfounded by famed mountain man Jim Bridger.
Heading south and following river valleys southwestward to the valley of the Great Salt Lake, Brigham Young led the first Mormons into present-day Utah during The Mormon Trail was used for more than 20 years after the Mormons used it and has been reserved for sightseeing.
The initial movement of the Mormons from Nauvoo, Illinois to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake occurred in two segments: one in and one in The first segment, across Iowa to the Missouri River, covered around miles. From tomore than 4, Mormons died traveling along an integral part of the road west, the Mormon Pioneer Trail.
Generally following pre-existing routes, the ce este opțiunea scară carried tens of thousands of Mormon colonists to a new home and refuge in the Great Basin.